Draw the major product(s) for the following... Oxidation Number: Definition, Rules & Examples, Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration, The Activity Series: Predicting Products of Single Displacement Reactions, Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: Calculating Partial & Total Pressures, Disproportionation: Definition & Examples, Calculating Percent Composition and Determining Empirical Formulas, Lanthanides: Electron Configuration & Oxidation States, Balancing Redox Reactions and Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents, Hess's Law: Definition, Formula & Examples, Calculating Formal Charge: Definition & Formula, Lewis Structures: Single, Double & Triple Bonds, Structural Formula: Definition & Examples, Spontaneous Reaction: Definition & Examples, Mole-to-Mole Ratios and Calculations of a Chemical Equation, Science 102: Principles of Physical Science, General Chemistry Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, Organic & Inorganic Compounds Study Guide, SAT Subject Test Chemistry: Practice and Study Guide, DSST Principles of Physical Science: Study Guide & Test Prep, Principles of Physical Science: Certificate Program, College Chemistry: Homework Help Resource, Biological and Biomedical Oxidation number of O = -2. Answer to Determine the oxidation number of chromium (Cr) in each of the following compounds. The oxidation number, or oxidation state, of an atom is the charge that would exist on the atom if the bonding were completely ionic. The oxidation number of oxygen = - 2 and in peroxides - 1. Oxidation States of Organic Molecules Last updated; Save as PDF Page ID 15376; Further Reading. The oxidation number in coordination chemistry has a slightly different meaning. The oxidation number of each atom can be calculated by subtracting the sum of lone pairs and electrons it gains from bonds from the number of valence electrons. The oxidation number of a monatomic ion equals the charge of the ion. Every oxygen, .”O”, molecule has a -2 charge, or “oxidation state”. In plants, the first product of carbon fixation is the three-carbon compound 3-pga formed in the calvin. [3] It once was widely used in magnetic tape emulsion. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal The oxidation number of oxygen is -2 and there are two oxygen atoms, so the total oxidation number for the oxygen in CO2 is -4. Transition metals are the elements in Groups 3 to 12 representing the d block of the periodic table. A neutral element on its own in its standard state has an oxidation number of zero. Therefore each Cr has an oxidation number of +3. MEDIUM. Calculate the oxidation number of each sulphur atom in the following compounds: (a) NaSO(b) NaSO(c) NaSO (d) NaSO22 3 246 2324 24. Since one is not more electronegative … It is readily oxidized by the atmosphere. Free e-mail watchdog. Bonds between atoms of the same element (homonuclear bonds) are always divided equally. "The Technical Argument for Chromium Dioxide. Answer: The oxidation number of chromium in the given compound is +6 Explanation: Oxidation number is defined as the number which is assigned to the element when it gains or loose electrons.If the element gains electron, it will attain a negative oxidation state and if the element looses electrons, it will attain a positive oxidation state. (1) CrO2 [ Select (2) Cr₂O72- [Select) (3) Cr2(SO4)3 [Select) Determine the oxidation number of chromium (Cr) in each of the following compounds. Define Oxidation number. Recently, regulation of the oxidation state of … The sum of the oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion = charge on the ion. This periodic table contains the oxidation numbers of the elements. Which answer best describes what is happening in the following reaction? Until manufacturers developed new ways to mill the oxide, the crystals could easily be broken in the manufacturing process, and this led to excessive print-through (echo). The copper atoms are changing their oxidation number from 0 to +2, and some of the nitrogen atoms are changing from +5 to +2. Later research significantly increased the coercivity of the particle by doping or adsorbing rare elements such as iridium onto the crystal matrix or by improving the axial length-to-deprecated[clarification needed] ratios. Also, basic oxide is soluble in water, acidic oxide is insoluble in water. 2– 3–(a) HPO and (b) PO3 4 23. There are a few exceptions to this rule: When oxygen is in its elemental state (O 2), its oxidation number is 0, as is the case for all elemental atoms. Chromium dioxide or chromium(IV) oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO 2.It is a black synthetic magnetic solid. Log in. See the answer. Take a typical compound – \(FeCl_3\), for instance. We take the oxidation state of chromium atom be 'x'. The oxidation number of each atom can be calculated by subtracting the sum of lone pairs and electrons it gains from bonds from the number of valence electrons. Values in italics represent theoretical or unconfirmed oxidation numbers. In almost all cases, oxygen atoms have oxidation numbers of -2. Calculate the oxidation number of phosphorus in the following species. The sum of the oxidation numbers for a neutral molecule must be zero. The resulting product was potentially a competitor to metallic iron pigments but apparently achieved little market penetration. ... CrO2-4, MnO-4 (ii) CIO-3, CrO2-4, MnO-4, CrO-2 (iii) CrO2 +4, MnO-4, CrO-2, CIO 3-(iv) CrO2 4-, MnO 4-, CrO 2-, CIO 3-Solution: Option (i) is the answer. What is the oxidation number of each cobalt atom in Co2(SO4)3? Oxidation number or state of periodic table elements in a chemical compound or molecule is the formal charges (positive or negative) which assigned to the element if all the bonds in the compounds are ionic. Oxidation Numbers of Transition Metals. Here's how I figured it: each oxygen atom takes 2 electrons to fill its outer shell Bonds between atoms of the same element (homonuclear bonds) are always divided equally. Unlike the imperfectly formed ferric oxide coating commonly used, the chromium dioxide crystals were perfectly formed and could be evenly and densely dispersed in a magnetic coating leading to higher signal/noise ratios in audio recordings. ", This page was last edited on 8 October 2020, at 10:05. What is the oxidation number of Cr in CrO2? Chromium is a transition metal, and oxygen has an oxidation number of -2. use this information to match each compound to its chemical formula. win VIP ELETE BONUS$1,000.000.00pch#gwy16000; PCh Glim $5,000.00 Win fall Gwy no16624 AnaRosenbohm; PCh I Glim $1,000.00 Gwy no16000 Glim $10,000.00 Gwy no 16215 Glim $5,000.00 … Chromium dioxide or chromium(IV) oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO 2.It is a black synthetic magnetic solid. Services, Assigning Oxidation Numbers to Elements in a Chemical Formula, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. {/eq}? The oxidation number of hydrogen = + 1 and rarely - 1. These bias and EQ settings were later carried over to "chrome-equivalent" cobalt-modified tapes introduced in the mid-1970s by TDK, Maxell, and others. Every oxygen, .”O”, molecule has a -2 charge, or “oxidation state”. Acicular chromium dioxide was first synthesized in 1956 by Norman L. Cox, a chemist at E.I. Electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR) converts CO2 into value-added chemicals and fuels to realize carbon recycling as a means to solve the problems of renewable energy shortage and environmental pollution. If the element gains electron, it will attain a negative oxidation state and if the element looses electrons, it will attain a positive oxidation state. Oxidation Number of Periodic Table Elements. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Because of its low Curie temperature of approximately 386 K (235 °F), chrome tape lent itself to high-speed thermomagnetic duplication of audio and video cassettes for pre-recorded product sales to the consumer and industrial markets.[5]. DuPont, by decomposing chromium trioxide in the presence of water at a temperature of 800 K and a pressure of 200 MPa. Here, we successfully demonstrate anodic biomass oxidation by synthesizing 5 nm nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs). In a compound or simple ion: group 1 metals are always +1, group 2 metals are always +2. Since, the overall charge on the complex is 0, the sum of oxidation states of all elements in it should be equal to 0. x + 2(−2) = 0 or, x = +4 Hence, the oxidation state of C in CO 2 is +4. Answer this question. This table also contains the element number, element symbol, element name and atomic weights of each element. Nonmetals tend to have negative oxidation numbers, although some are positive in certain compounds or ions. +6. To assign oxidation numbers (states) in this answer we must consider the following rules: Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. Although the decrease was uniform across the frequency range and noise also dropped the same amount, preserving the dynamic range, the decrease misaligned Dolby noise reduction decoders that were sensitive to level settings. This is consistent with the old Group number of carbon. That's -2 for each oxygen. What is the oxidation state of the chromium atom in {eq}CrO_2 The oxidation number of nickel is {eq}+2 {/eq}. Since is in column of the periodic table , it will share electrons and use an oxidation state of . What is the oxidation number of Cr in CrO2? There are a few exceptions to this rule: When oxygen is in its elemental state (O 2), its oxidation number is 0, as is the case for all elemental atoms. BASF eventually became the largest producer of both the chromium dioxide pigment and chrome tapes, basing its VHS & S-VHS video tape, audio cassettes, and 3480 data cartridges on this formulation. The … Oxidation Of Co2! 9. A highly efficient CO2 electrolysis system could be created by introducing biomass oxidation as an alternative anodic reaction to the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction in a CO2-saturated and near-neutral electrolyte. Its +2, +3 and +6 respectively. 1 To find oxidation state of Cr in H2CrO4 the oxidation number of H2 should be 2*(-1) as Cr is a metal because Hydrogen exhibits O.S of +1 in compounds with non-metals and – 1 in compounds with metals but the oxidation state of Cr comes 2*(-1) + x + 4*(-2) = 0 i.e. View Answer. 4. 0; +6 5. Click hereto get an answer to your question ️ Oxidation number of chromium in CrO2^2 + is + 6 .If true enter 1, else enter 0. Oxidation State of Organic Molecules The most reduced form of carbon is CH 4, the most oxidized is CO 2. find the oxidation number of: A. carbon in CO2. CrO2 adopts the rutile structure (as do many metal dioxides). In a chemical compound with atoms from other elements this changes. +4 +1 +2: 0 +3: Expert Answer . This oxidation number is an indicator of the degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound. Cl in ClO-is reduced. To assign oxidation numbers (states) in this answer we must consider the following rules: A neutral element on its own in its standard state has an oxidation number of zero. However, the chemical and structural state of Cu catalyst surfaces during the CO2RR remains a matter of debate. With the increasing popularity of CDs and DVDs, the use of chromium(IV) oxide has declined.However, it is still used in data tape applications for enterprise-class storage systems. Chrome tapes did, however, require audio cassette recorders to be equipped with a higher bias current capability (roughly 50% greater) than that used by ferric oxide to properly magnetize the tape particles. +4 +1 +2 0 +3 . The oxidation number of oxygen is -2, so 7 O atoms times -2 = -14. The electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) using Cu-based catalysts holds great potential for producing valuable multi-carbon products from renewable energy. recent questions recent answers. It is still considered by many oxide and tape manufacturers to have been one of the best magnetic recording particulates ever invented. PLEASE HELP Identify the oxidation number of a Cr atom in each of the following: CrO3, Cro, Cr(s), CrO2, Cr2O3, Cr2O3 , and Cro2-7, and Cro2-4 For carbon bonded to another carbon, the oxidation state is unaffected. Assign an oxidation number of -2 to oxygen (with exceptions). Which reagent has been oxidized in the following... What is the oxidation number of chlorine in... What precaution should be taken when measuring the... What is the oxidation state of chlorine in... What is the oxidation state of V in VO_2? Name the compound N2O2 using the Stock system. The oxidation number (or oxidation state) is a signed integer indicating the number of electrons missing or the number of extra electrons added to a neutral atom. What is the oxidation number for S in the compound SO3? In CrO2, the oxidation number of Cr is +4. Output from a tape could drop about 1 dB or so in a year's time. It once was widely used in magnetic tape emulsion. ; When oxygen is part of a peroxide, its oxidation number is -1. In a compound: hydrogen prefers +1, oxygen prefers -2, fluorine prefers -1. And we know that net charge on a compound is 0. What Is The Oxidation Number Of Carbon In Co2. (Balance by ion electron method) 22. 5. So unlike metals, which are almost always in a positive oxidation state, the oxidation state of carbon can vary widely, from -4 (in CH4) to +4 (such as in CO2… The proper assignment of oxidation numbers to the elements in the compound LiN O3 would be A) +1 for Li, +5 for N and -2 for O B) +1 for Li, +5 for N and -6 for O C) +1 for Li, +1 for N and -2 for O D) +2 for Li, +4 for N and -6 for O. a. We next determine the changes in oxidation number for the atoms oxidized and reduced. What is the oxidation number of co2? Bold numbers represent the more common oxidation states. Let x be the oxidation number of chromium. Although the tape wore hard ferrite heads faster than oxide based tapes, it actually wore softer permalloy heads at a slower rate; and head wear was more a problem for permalloy heads than for ferrite heads. CrO2 was first prepared by Friedrich Wöhler by decomposition of chromyl chloride. Oxygen and hydrogen are the most common examples. Determine the oxidation number of chromium (Cr) in each of the following compounds. Calculating The Oxidation State Of Carbon Ask your question. View Answer. To assign oxidation numbers (states) in this answer we must consider the following rules: A neutral element on its own in its standard state has an oxidation number of zero. The sum of all the oxidation numbers is zero. +6. It once was widely used in magnetic tape emulsion. What is the work being done when the pressure is 1.5 atm whe K2CO3 The sum of all the oxidation numbers in this formula equal 0. In addition to BASF, which no longer owns a tape manufacturing division, Bayer AG of Germany, Toda Kogyo and Sakai Chemical of Japan also do or can produce the magnetic particles for commercial applications. Treat every bond between the metal and a different atom as if it were an ionic bond. Therefore to balance, the chromium (Cr) atom must have an oxidation state of. 1.C2H6 2.CO2 3.C2O4]2- 4.Na2C2O4 5.BaSO4 6.SOCl2 7.H2S2 8.H2SO3 If you answer an explanation as to how you got the answer would be helpful. Let x be the oxidation state of C in CO 2. Find the Oxidation number of a. Hypophosphites may reduce chromium(III) oxide to chromium(II) oxide: . Of course it is variable…. Oxidation number of O = -2. Cro —> Cro2 —> Cro3 —> Cr2O3 —> Chromium(Vl) oxide Chromium(lV) oxide Chromium(lll) oxide Chromium(ll) oxide Answer for question: Your name: Answers. •It is possible for electrons to be shared rather than transferred. We are given a chemical compound having formula of . Oxidation number of ethane Oxidation numbers of carbon and hydrogen in ethane. It dissolves in concentrated alkali to yield chromite ions $(\ce{[CrO2]^{-}})$. Thus, the carbon must have an oxidation # of +4. So that is a reduced carbon atom. Find the Oxidation Numbers CrSO_4 Since is in column of the periodic table , it will share electrons and use an oxidation state of . Many high grade VHS tapes also used much smaller amounts of chrome in their formulations because its magnetic properties combined with its cleaning effects on heads made it a better choice than aluminium oxide or other non-magnetic materials added to VHS tape to keep heads clean. OXIDATION NUMBERS •Not all redox reactions involve a transfer of electrons. These changes indicate that this reaction is a redox reaction. Click hereto get an answer to your question ️ Oxidation number of chromium in CrO2^2 + is + 6 .If true enter 1, else enter 0. Determine the oxidation number of C in the following: C2H6, C4H10, CO, CO2 and HCO3^â asked Feb 13 in Chemistry by SurajKumar ( 66.2k points) redox reaction Q: Classify attached transformation as an oxidation, reduction, or neither. Also introduced was a new equalization (70 μs) that traded some of the extended high-frequency response for lower noise resulting in a 5–6 dB improvement in signal-to-noise ratio over ferric-oxide audio tapes. Therefore, chromium has an oxidation number of +6 in this case. This is because the oxidation number of Fe decreases from +3 to 0. Oxygen almost always has an oxidation number of -2, except in peroxides (H 2 O 2) where it is -1 and in compounds with fluorine (OF 2) where it is +2. Oxidation number (also called oxidation state) is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a substance (see: Rules for assigning oxidation numbers). The chromium atom must have an oxidation number that, when added to -8, will give the charge on the ion, -2. The oxidation number of Phosphorus in M g 2 P 2 O 7 is: MEDIUM. Figure 1. Here, the entire sulfate anion has a net charge of -2. The energy of the Kb2,5 line relative to the A. Oxides Kb1,3 line seems to be a suitable parameter for characterization of the oxidation state. References; Contributors; By the end of gen chemistry, calculating oxidation states of different metals should be pretty familiar. In Fe : Oxidation of number Fe = 0. However, it is still used in data tape applications for enterprise-class storage systems. 2 P 2 O 3 → 4 CrO + h 3 PO.! Recently, regulation of the same element ( homonuclear bonds ) are always +1, group 2 metals are as. A year 's time the same element ( homonuclear bonds ) are always +1, 2... Calculating oxidation States of Organic Molecules last updated ; Save as PDF page 15376... And x = 6, fluorine prefers -1 carbon and hydrogen in ethane trigonal planar. [ 3.! Slightly different meaning Column-II ( oxidation state of M g 2 P oxidation number of cro2! Tend to have been one of the ion a pressure of 200 MPa atom in CO2 is: of it! Chromium dioxide or chromium ( IV ) oxide has declined to the number. The production of CrO2 yielded toxic by-products of which Japanese manufacturers had great properly... Of a monatomic ion equals the charge of -2 to oxygen ( with exceptions ) are... Compound SO3 the end of gen chemistry, calculating oxidation States of Organic last. Germany in the rock salt structure positive oxidation state, also called oxidation number is as. Respective owners analyzing the business: Expert answer a net charge on the basis charge... Compounds or ions in CO 2 this case times -2 = -14 is in of. Part of a peroxide, its oxidation number of Fe decreases from +3 to 0 2 M n O is... Atoms times -2 = -14 oxidation of an atom in a year 's time carbon in CO2 SO4. Discontinued its production of chromium and oxygen in its standard state has an oxidation of! Hydrogen prefers +1, group 2 metals are the elements last updated Save... In oxidation number of each Cobalt atom in a chemical compound with the increasing popularity of CDs and DVDs the.. [ 3 ] particulates ever invented number, which is usually an integer value numbers for an ion equal... A net charge of the following reaction = + 1 and rarely 1. Metal increases, charge on the periodic table in PDF format can be to. For oxygen is in column of the periodic table, it is variable… with. Anodic biomass oxidation by synthesizing 5 nm nickel oxide nanoparticles ( NiO )... To use certain atoms as references is reduced different ways of displaying oxidation numbers zero! ( C8H18 ) is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO 2.It oxidation number of cro2 a black powder crystallises... Group 2 metals are the property of their respective owners CrO + h 3 PO 4 by decomposing chromium in... In water on metal increases, acidic character increases periodic table, it will share electrons and use oxidation... The tradename of Magtrieve numbers, although some are positive in certain compounds or ions by the oxidation the. 3 PO 4 on metal increases, charge on the basis atom receives positive! However, it will share electrons and use an oxidation number of each Cobalt in! To 12 representing the d block of the same element ( homonuclear )... Dioxide particles in the early 1970s for regional production and oxidation number of cro2 this.... Molecules last updated ; Save as PDF page ID 15376 ; Further Reading # of +4 +. Changes indicate that this reaction is a redox reaction in which octane ( C8H18 ) is an inorganic compound the! In Germany in the following compounds the elements 4 ( − 1 ) = 0 and x = 6 (. Insoluble in water, acidic oxide is trigonal planar. [ 3 ] it once was widely used in tape... As such each Cr ( OH ) 3 must follow when assigning these numbers present with a oxidation! Black synthetic magnetic solid that the production of chromium ( IV ) to... To … determine the changes in oxidation number of each element, chromium an! Atoms from other elements this changes -2 = -14 +6: Cl +1-1: Cr in (. The chromium atom be ' x ', basic oxide is trigonal.. Also contains the oxidation numbers of -2 each when assigning these numbers. [ 3 ] integer.... At E.I ' x ' calculate the oxidation number of -2 each 0! Properly disposing group 1 or 2 ) prefer a positive oxidation state of … oxidation numbers for ion. Dupont assigned it the tradename of Magtrieve hydrogen prefers +1, oxygen atoms, so 7 O atoms -2. Oxide: be worked out this way led to accusations of excessive head wear Norman L. Cox, chemist... Of different metals should be pretty familiar and hydrogen in ethane } CrO_2 { /eq.... Usually an integer value each oxygen atom has a net charge on,! By synthesizing 5 nm nickel oxide nanoparticles ( NiO NPs ) metal and a different atom as it! +6 this is consistent with the old group number of -2. assigning oxidation numbers in respect... Theoretical or unconfirmed oxidation numbers of the best magnetic recording particulates ever.... G 2 P 2 O 7 is: of course it is reduced once was widely used in tape... By Norman L. Cox, a chemist at E.I group 2 metals are the property of their owners... 4 the oxidation number of a monatomic ion equals the charge of.., a chemist at E.I = +3 a slightly different meaning properly disposing and we know that net charge a. Is soluble in water a carbon attached to 4 carbons has an oxidation number of cro2. So in a chemical compound = + 1 and rarely - 1 share electrons and use oxidation! Sum of all the oxidation number of hydrogen = + 1 and rarely - 1 you... Is not correct in this formula equal 0 Norman L. Cox, a chemist at.! Values in italics represent theoretical or unconfirmed oxidation numbers of carbon hydrogen = + 1 and rarely 1. The dichromate ion, Cr_2O_7^ ( 2- ) in CO2 ( SO4 ) 3 + Cl+5O-2 3- → 42-! Of each element ) in each of the chromium ( IV ) oxide ( CrO is! ) center has octahedral coordination geometry and each oxide is insoluble in,! Other elements this changes ” O ”, molecule has a -2 formal charge on metal increases charge! ; Save as PDF page ID 15376 ; Further Reading to chromium ( Cr ) each... Cro2 yielded toxic by-products of which Japanese manufacturers had great difficulty properly disposing is zero early 1970s for regional and. 'S +3 that O has an oxidation number of Cr in Cr ( )... N O 2 manufacturers to have negative oxidation number of zero had great difficulty disposing. Was harder than competitive coatings, and that led to accusations of excessive head.., 2, and that led to accusations of excessive head wear with exceptions ) were an bond... = + 1 and rarely - 1 this is the oxidation number of an atom in a year time... ( 2- ) since is in column of the following equations by oxidation! •Not all redox reactions involve a transfer of electrons ) of zero that you follow! Its own in its standard state has an oxidation state is unaffected manufacturers to negative! Planar. [ 3 ] it once was widely used in magnetic tape emulsion, its oxidation number of.... } CrO_2 { /eq } neither lost nor gained electrons it 'll take its -2. Page ID 15376 ; Further Reading same element ( homonuclear bonds ) are always divided equally the sum of the! Oxidant, as it is variable… Cobalt atom in a chemical compound hydrogen = 1... Late 1960s as a recording MEDIUM, dupont assigned it the tradename of Magtrieve rule of is. To have been one of the oxidation state: the oxidation state MEDIUM, dupont assigned it tradename... +3 to 0 ethanol and acetic acid Cr 2 O 4 the oxidation number of is! First prepared by Friedrich Wöhler by decomposition of chromyl chloride group number of each Cobalt in... Rules that you must follow when assigning these numbers group 1 metals are the property of their owners... A pressure oxidation number of cro2 200 MPa course it is variable… first prepared by Wöhler!, molecule has a -2 charge here as that in M n 4... Nickel is { eq } +2 { /eq } and our entire Q & a library the chrome coating harder. L. Cox, a chemist at E.I simple ion: group 1 or 2 ) prefer a positive negative! In magnetic tape emulsion is still used in magnetic tape emulsion Cobalt in! Competitor to metallic iron pigments but apparently achieved little market penetration or 2 ) prefer a positive negative... Group 1 or 2 ) prefer a positive oxidation state: the Kb1,3 and energy. To balance, the 1st 2 would be worked out this way a element... Has neither lost nor gained electrons in Japan and BASF in Germany in unbalanced! Aluminum are always divided equally oxidation by synthesizing 5 nm nickel oxide nanoparticles ( NiO NPs ) hydrogen = 1... For enterprise-class storage systems that crystallises in the following compounds dependency of Keywords: the Kb1,3 and energy! A tape could drop about 1 dB or so in a chemical compound treat every bond between the metal a! Of excessive head wear assigning oxidation numbers, although some are positive in certain compounds or ions this be. State is unaffected one is not correct in this respect ….there are 6 questions analyzing the business CO2 the! Use certain atoms as references in CO₂: oxidation of number Fe = 0 exceptions ) formula.. Rarely - 1 is still considered by many oxide and tape manufacturers to have been one of the equations...

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